When did loans and mortgages appear in Russia?
If you delve into history, then loans in Russia appeared in the second half of the 19th century, with the development of the banking system. Loans were given on the security of estates and were used by the nobles, which led in many respects to the loss of these estates and the transfer to the possession of the nascent bourgeoisie. A classic example of this phenomenon is described by A.P. Chekhov in the play "The Cherry Orchard".
There were no loans in the USSR, because there was an acute deficit of everything and everyone. Somewhere from the end of the 60s, the so-called installment plan began to appear for some products that have ceased to be included in scarce goods, for example, vacuum cleaners, radios, televisions.
In modern Russia, a loan appeared in the late 90s, and a mortgage in 2000. At that time it was more difficult to get a loan for a private trader. Loans were issued against collateral or surety of third parties. Credit histories did not exist yet and banks were afraid of people they did not know. All of the above applies to lending to individuals, because commercial lending is a completely different function.
There were loans back in the days of the USSR. But then the interest on them was scanty. They were repaid through the accounting department of the enterprise by deducting the corresponding amount from the salary. Such loans had little effect on the quality of life. Mortgages (mortgage loans) appeared in the late 1990s and early 2000s, I don't remember exactly. It was difficult to obtain it at first. People over the age of 40 were practically not given her away, although this was not legally stipulated. In addition, the first mortgages required guarantors. Although not in all banks.