Art painting as a kind of decorative and applied art continues the traditions of folk art. This is not just a certain visual range, its essence is much more, because it seems to soar outside of time, uniting the work of dozens of generations of masters. It is organically connected with the Motherland - at the place of its origin in the community of peasants (cattle breeders, farmers, hunters).
Art critics' view of art painting
Artistic painting is applied to products from easily obtained traditional natural "democratic" materials: natural fabrics, wood, clay, leather, stone, bone.
Until the XNUMXth century, its sprouts existed within individual natural peasant farms. Skills were passed on by masters along the ancestral line, from generation to generation. Specific artistic techniques were perfected, allowing for the optimal presentation of products. The most expressive and meaningful ways of applying the ornament were chosen. Painting in architecture decorated the ceiling, walls, vaults, beams and pillars, and in everyday life - dishes, objects of labor.
In the period from the 1903th to the 1876th century, art painting in Russia was already being transformed into a craft that creates goods for the market. It is not individual craftsmen who begin to deal with it, but individual areas, villages. In the XNUMXth century, the art of painting was organized. For example, the masters of Fedoskino miniatures organized themselves in this way after the ruin of private owners in XNUMX and preserved their art. In XNUMX, the systematization of various types of painting began by Professor A.A. Isaev. in the two-volume monograph "Trades in the Moscow province".
In the 20s and 30s, the emphasis was placed on the creation of cooperative fishing artels where centers of folk art developed historically, developing original types of painting. For example, Khokhloma painting in the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The strategy for the development of painting, as well as other types of decorative and applied art, is comprehended and outlined by the scientist and teacher Vasily Sergeevich Voronov in the monograph "On Peasant Art".
Currently, artistic painting enterprises are actively developing types of painting in order to meet the demand both in the Russian market and abroad. Painted items, while maintaining their everyday function, are increasingly acquiring features of aesthetic and artistic value. For their production, modern machines and special equipment are used - for roughing and preparatory work. The main creative work, as well as several centuries ago, is done by hand by master-artists.
Painting as art
It is impossible not to note that the national painting changes the very image of the product. It becomes more expressive in terms of colors, rhythm of lines and proportionality. Industrial "soulless" goods become warm and lively through the efforts of artists. The latter is achieved by applying ornament and elements of fine art (graphics and painting). Various types of painting create a special positive emotional background, consonant with the locality of the existence of the craft.
Formally speaking, art painting is performed by applying paint with a brush to a specific surface. An important point should be noted: unlike painting, which simulates an integral space, painting is always fragmentary.
Designers often talk about the phenomenon of Russian painting: it is universally in harmony with almost any style: minimalism, modern, country. The techniques created by ancient masters have been perfected by many generations of masters in certain localities, creating a special stylistic expressiveness. Fortunately, in Russia of the XXI century, various types of painting have survived and are developing: Gzhel, Khokhloma, Boretskaya, Gorodetskaya, Mezenskaya, Onezhskaya, Permogorskaya, Pizhemskaya, Polkhovsko-Paidanskaya, Puchuzhskaya, Rakulskaya. Consider the features of these distinctive styles.
The emergence of khokhloma
The ability to paint a tree in gold color without using, in fact, gold was transferred to Khokhloma masters from schismatic icon painters, who discovered this know-how back in the XNUMXth century in the secret wilderness of the forests of the Volga region. By the way, they were also familiar with the crafts that provide painting: turning and the art of ancient ornament. Perhaps they were also familiar with the ancient types of painting,
Khokhloma, a large trading village in the Nizhny Novgorod region of the Trans-Volga region, attracted skilled craftsmen like a magnet.
This, in modern parlance, a regional fair for a group of villages along the banks of the Uzola River worked not only for the domestic market of Russia. Wealthy merchants used to buy up large consignments of the best-selling goods on it and took them for export. Thus, the Khokhloma market was “under the gun” of both domestic and foreign markets, which means that quality competition prevailed over price competition. A real incentive was created: the skill of a skilled person brought him tangible wealth.
According to the research of specialists, in the period from the XNUMXth to the XNUMXth centuries, the Khokhloma style evolved, into which the ancient Nizhny Novgorod types of wood painting were integrated.
In the period from the XNUMXth to the XNUMXth century, the Khokhloma style basically took shape. In our time, its centers are:
- the Khokhloma artist factory, which employs craftsmen from the villages of the Koverninsky district (Semino and others). Wildflowers and wild berries predominate in their paintings;
- Association "Khokhloma painting", Semyonov. The masters of the union traditionally develop the theme of fantastic colors.
The monastic skill of the "fine brush" found a sphere of application in the richest floral ornamentation. The quality of the products played an important role. The art of Khokhloma presupposed the observance of a certain technology by the masters. It is characteristic that it has not changed until our time. Let's list its stages in order:
- turning on a lathe a wooden tableware ("linen");
- priming of workpieces with a liquid solution of specially prepared clay ("shaft"). Nowadays, artificial primers are used for this purpose;
- tinning with tin or silver. Now they use aluminum for this;
- art painting on wood and drying the product in the oven;
- varnishing and hot drying.
Intensive heat treatment of the items determined the color scheme preferred by ancient Russian painters: a combination of gold and red cinnabar with black. Those. the temperature of the Khokhloma ovens did not affect the brightness and contrast of such paints.
Khokhloma painting methods
Ancient types of painting on wood, integrating into Khokhloma, determined its two systems: "background" and "top" writing. The very name of the system contains the way of drawing the main silhouette outlines.
The "horse" system involves the application of a colored silhouette outline directly on a gold background. The background forms a golden "contour" directly from the background, by the master "sketching" with black and red colors of the space surrounding the "golden curls".
Each of the systems uses the same types of Khokhloma painting. There are only four of them: "kudrina", "under the berry" (or "under the leaf"); "Gingerbread"; "Under the background".
"Kudrina" assumes a "grass" pattern, painted with a very thin brush. It is somewhat reminiscent of sedge, however, curled with intricate harmonious dynamic rings. According to experts, this is the most ancient ornament.
"Under the berry" - drawn with a thicker brush. In addition to the "herbal base", leaves and berries are already appearing here. The plant form is stylized and combined. On the same "stem" you can see chamomile and strawberry leaves.
Gingerbread painting involves playing with a certain geometric shape (most often a rhombus). The figure is enlivened by "bushes" on the sides and illuminated by the sun in the middle.
With the method "under the background", the vegetative contour is successively drawn, after which the background that remains free is painted over, and mostly black.
Thanks to the uniqueness of the brush of each master, the Khokhloma is unique and unique. The types of painting that we have considered above alternate on it, delighting the eye with the harmony of golden, red and black colors.
Gzhel. Finding clay for porcelain
Gzhel as an art of artistic painting was born on the territory of the modern Ramensky district of the Moscow region. In the old days, these places were called the Gzhel volost, and the villages of Bokhteevo, Volodino, Gzhel, Kuzyaevo, Novokharitonovo, Turygino are located in this area.
Until the 1663th century, local peasants made relatively primitive glazed utensils from clay. The situation changed thanks to the industrial development of local clays suitable for the production of porcelain. The starting point was the order of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich to find "clays suitable" for the production of pharmaceutical vessels - in XNUMX.
The experiment was a success, since 1710 the pharmaceutical order began to use the local raw materials. Pharmacists praised the quality of the clays, and the moment came when industrialists became interested in them. They were interested in raw materials suitable for the production of porcelain. By decree of the tsar in 1844, a commission was created, which included the owner of a porcelain factory in Moscow Afanasy Grebenshchikov and an engineer of the Porcelain Manufactory Dmitry Ivanovich Vinogradov, who received a mining engineering education at the University of Marburg. We were looking for the right clay for five years. In 1849, after eight months of exploration, clays were mined, from which first-class porcelain was produced. MV Lomonosov himself, a fellow practitioner of Vinogradov, spoke highly of their quality.
Gzhel. Production development
The industrialist Grebenshchikov began to use the found raw materials at his Moscow plant. However, the clever people from the village of Gzhel and the surrounding villages, by the way, as we mentioned, who already had the skills of pottery, also realized the benefits of using better quality clays.
Business went briskly, since excellent consultants lived in the villages - production workers from A. Grebenshchikov's plant. In the period from 1750 to 1820 handicraftsmen produced majolica - oblong kvass-like jugs, plates, mugs, dishes. Ornamental painting was done with green, yellow, blue and eggplant paint on a white background. The image included a bird - in the center, and around it - trees, bushes, houses. (i.e. demonstrated primitive types of tableware painting). Dishes were in demand. A quality competition has arisen. The leaders were the former pottery factories producing high quality semi-faience, identical to the "foreign" tableware.
Craftsmanship has perfected for 80 years, and since 1820 almost all Gzhel craftsmen have been producing semi-faience. This is the heyday of the Gzhel art. The products of the masters can also be seen in the Hermitage. This tableware began to be considered the best and most beautiful in Russia. Typical painted Gzhel teapots, bowls, plates filled the houses of merchants and nobility, taverns. Types of painting are being improved. Gzhel is bought all over the country, from Arkhangelsk to Astrakhan, exported to Central Asia and the Middle East. The products are produced by approximately thirty factories. Manufacturers are engaged in the production of gzhel: the Barmins, Guslins, Gusyatnikovs, Kiselevs, Terekhovs, Sazonovs.
Unfortunately, starting from 1860 the decline of the Gzhel painting took place. Folk art, born of the competition of hundreds of small producers and dozens of medium-sized ones, is being supplanted by the pragmatism of large monopolies. Among the monopolists, MS Kuznetsov stood out, with his five factories and an annual output of 2,1 million rubles. The production capacity of all others was 14% of Kuznetsov's. Strictly speaking, the manufacturer Kuznetsov "crushed" creativity. Competition has gone, motivation has gone down, quality has gone down, a decline has come.
How artists paint Gzhel
Gzhel is unique in that each master, using classical types of art painting for her, creates his own individual technique.
This is a subtle art. A fundamental role belongs to the experience of the master, which manifests itself in the way of movement of the brush. At the same time, on the snowy whiteness of porcelain, a harmonious color change from intense blue to blurry blue is obtained. All this is painted with one single paint - cobalt. The drawing is superimposed on the surface "the first time", quickly.
Why is the skill of an artist important? Initially, the real colors of the picture are not visible (a feature of cobalt). Everything depicted seems to be one-color, and only when the gzhel is fired in the oven, the drawing will fully manifest itself.
What is the composition of Gzhel? The central role in it is usually occupied by a decorated flower. To the sides of it lead a harmoniously twisting "herbal" plot, enriched with leaves and berries. It happens that animalistic plots or those related to everyday life (for example, at home) are interwoven into this drawing.
How is such a drawing practically obtained? The types of artistic painting for "painted the first time" Gzhel are actually reduced to the methods of applying a smear. There are only four of them: a shaded brush stroke, painting with one brush, a print pattern, as well as complementary images.
The network shaded stroke is characterized by a wide color range due to the varying intensity of the cobalt blending through the artist's special rotation of the brush.
Painting with one brush is characterized by the fact that each subsequent stroke differs in tone from the previous one. In this case, the intensity of the strokes gradually decreases, they "brighten".
The calico pattern is the thinnest. It is drawn with only one end of the brush.
The types of painting used by Gzhel are not characteristic of photographic replication of natural motives, but are reinterpreted and presented in an unexpected configuration. The reinterpreted blue leaves, petals of blue tulips, asters, carnations, roses depicted by the artist follow the contours of birds or animals. Sometimes they outline stylized household items or objects (for example, peasant huts).
Complementary images of the "grassy" type - antennae, spirals, shading elements, various flourishes, geometric fragments - add completeness to the image and create the necessary accents.
The emergence of the Polkhov-Maidan painting
Russian folk painting is diverse. Its types in all their diversity, perhaps, can be described in a specialized monograph, but not in an article. Therefore, our task is more modest. We have already named the most "promoted" types of painting: khokhloma and gzhel. However, there are others, they are all distinctive and there are quite a few of them. Let's name some: Boretskaya, Gorodetskaya, Mezenskaya, Onega, Permogorskaya, Pizhemskaya, Polkhov-Maidan, Puchuzhskaya, Rakulskaya, etc. Not being able to describe all of them in detail in this article, we will present a description of the only one of them - the Polkhov-Maidan.
This painting originated at the beginning of the XNUMXth century in the Voznesensky district of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Here, in the villages of Polkhovsky Maidan and in the village of Voznesenskoye, at the end of the XNUMXth century, the lathe trade of the monks of the Sarov Monastery existed. The peasants also learned the turning craft, becoming skilled craftsmen in the manufacture of wooden dishes. The craftsmen also made, as they said, "tararushki", that is, items for fun: whistles, mushrooms, nesting dolls, Easter eggs, children's toys.
The impetus for the creation of the painting was the acquisition by the peasant Polin Pavel Nikitich of an apparatus for vizhiganiya, and since 1926 the awakened creativity of the peasants led them to painting products with oil paints, and since 1933 they were replaced by aniline paints.
After the creativity of the Polkhovites was adopted by the Zagorsk people, the Merinovites, the Semenovites, new types of painting on nesting dolls were created (we will touch on this topic later).
Polkhov-Maidan painting style technology
First, the surface of the wooden product was sanded and primed with starch paste. Then the outline of the drawing was applied in ink, after which the painting was done. For this, paints were used in four colors: red, yellow, green and blue. Then the “aiming” was carried out, a characteristic artistic stage of the Polkhov-Maidan style, which consisted in outlining the outline of the drawing in black. We add that this type of painting involves such a technique as overlaying colors.
This art form also uses a special non-contour painting technique.
We mentioned this type of painting for a reason. It flourished in the USSR until the 90s inclusive. The Voznesensk factory employed half a thousand people. Of these, 40% are painters who carry out painting, the rest are turners. The work was treated creatively, a creative laboratory worked at the factory. The products were exported to the USA and European countries. Today, the traditions laid down by the factory are developed by entrepreneurs.
Her majesty matryoshka
Russian painting has not always evolved evolutionarily. Her types sometimes appeared unexpectedly - not from the "depth of centuries". They were generated by the inspiration of a single creative Russian master. This happened with the matryoshka. She is not a primordially Russian invention.
The matryoshka appeared in Russia in the 1898th century in Sergiev Posad. In XNUMX, the wife of the artist Sergei Vasilyevich Malyutin brought from Japan a figurine of the old man Fukuruma, into which four more figurines were put (by the way, according to Japanese legend, the first such figurine was made by a Russian monk). Sergei Vasilievich rethought its idea "in Russian". An ingenious idea arose - to simulate a typical Russian family. The name Matryona was then popular in Russia. In addition, as Milyutin believed, it echoed the ancient Roman name of the mother of the family.
Sergey Vasilievich made a drawing of a figurine with eight attachments. The woman was followed by her daughter with a black rooster, then a son, then a girl again, the eighth figure was a baby. Turner V.P. Zvezdochkin carved their shapes from wood. The figure was painted by Sergey Vasilievich himself.
Production of nesting dolls. Types of painting
The worldwide popularity of the matryoshka, its recognition by the world, dates back to 1900, when it “went out into the world” - to the world exhibition in Paris.
Could folk art pass by matryoshka dolls? Already in 1899, the entire Sergiev Posad produced new charming dolls: girls and women, ruddy, in caftans and aprons or in scarves and sundresses, with baskets, pets, birds, flowers. The Zagorsk style (as you know, Sergiev Posad was renamed Zagorsk) was notable for its picturesqueness, attention to small details.
Since 1922, nesting dolls have also begun to be produced in the village of Merinovo in the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The local turner AF Mayorov, having bought the Sergievskaya nesting doll, made his own. His daughter painted the figures. Merinovites quickly mastered the manufacture of these complex figurines. The Merinovskaya nesting doll is emphatically bright, although with less detail than the Zagorsk one.
The third "matryoshka deposit" was the village of Polkhovsky Maidan, famous for its turners and painting. The Polkhov matryoshka has its own characteristic features:
- a fleetingly written face in small strokes;
- the place of the outlines of the scarf and the lines of the sundress (skirt), from the back 2/3 the matryoshka is painted scarlet (red) or green. The color of the scarf contrasts with it. In the forehead area of the matryoshka, there is a drawing of a wild rose flower. The apron is designated - from the neck to the ground. The painting of the apron is grouped "by oval". In the middle there is a branch with an opened rose, leaves, berries. The composition is complemented by daisies and forget-me-nots.
Matryoshka from Vyatka is considered the most difficult to make, which local craftsmen inlay with straws.
Russian art painting as a kind of decorative and applied art is based on a deep folk tradition, on people's awareness of what the Motherland is, what the family is. It is associated with the centuries-old life of our ancestors, therefore painted products carry a charge of warmth, humanity, a creative attitude to life. They really adorn the everyday life of a modern person, they displace "impersonality", they introduce elements of decorating the living space.
Artistic painting also brings some accents to our life, reminding about continuity, about the Motherland, about the universal human duty of every person - to make life around him more beautiful.