The Ostankino TV Tower is one of the most important architectural landmarks of Moscow and a symbol of Russian television. Thanks to this grandiose structure, television broadcasts are provided to almost the entire country. In terms of technical equipment, broadcasting power and some other characteristics, the TV tower has no equal. In addition, it is considered the tallest structure in Europe.
The area of the television tower in Ostankino is more than 15 thousand square meters. meters. There is a whole complex of television studios, ring platforms and balconies. The volume of the tower is about 70 thousand cubic meters. The building consists of 45 floors. The height of the Ostankino TV tower is 540 meters. It ranks eighth in the world in terms of the height of free-standing buildings (the tallest structure in the world at the moment is the Dubai skyscraper Burj Khalifa). The first name of the tower is "All-Union Radio and Television Transmitting Station named after the 50th Anniversary of October".
History of construction
Permanent television broadcasting in the Soviet Union began in 1939. Initially, signal transmission was carried out using equipment that was located in the Shukhov tower (Shablovka). However, the increase in the volume and quality of broadcasting after World War II necessitated the construction of another TV tower. At first, it was built near the Shukhov television tower, but soon it still required the construction of a more modern television tower.
The project of the TV and radio station in Ostankino was developed by the Mosproekt organization. The construction of the Ostankino TV tower began in 1960. However, in a very short time it was stopped due to the uncertainty that the foundation of the structure was sufficiently reliably designed. In the future, the design of the television tower was entrusted to the Central Research Institute for the Design of Sports Buildings and Spectacular Facilities.
The project of the tower in Ostankino was invented by the designer Nikitin in just one night. He chose the inverted lily as the prototype of the design - a flower with a thick stem and strong petals. According to the initial idea, the tower was supposed to have 4 supports, but later, on the recommendation of the German engineer Fritz Leonhard (the creator of the first concrete TV tower on the planet), their number was increased to ten. The chief architect of the Ostankino TV tower, Leonid Ilyich Batalov, also supported the idea of increasing the number of supports.
The final design of the building was approved in 1963. Its authors were architects Burdin and Batalov, as well as designer Nikitin. The specialists decided to significantly modify the previous project, in particular, the number of equipment placed in the tower and its height were increased. The construction of the Ostankino TV tower was carried out from 1963 to 1967. In general, over 40 different organizations took part in the construction of the television station. At that time, the Ostankino TV tower became the tallest building not only in Europe, but throughout the world.
The beginning of the work of the TV tower
The first broadcast of television programs from the Ostankino tower was made in 1967. Despite the fact that this year the construction of the Ostankino tower was completed and the construction was officially accepted into operation, its revision was carried out for another year. As a result, the first broadcast of a color image took place already in 1968. A 3-storey restaurant with the symbolic name "Seventh Heaven" was also created in the tower. Most of the engineers who took part in the creation of this grandiose television center were awarded the Lenin Prize.
The Ostankino TV tower became a unique structure of that time, unparalleled. In addition to being the tallest building in the world for a long time, its technical characteristics were indeed impressive. After the completion of the construction of the tower, approximately 10 million inhabitants lived in the area of operation of the transmitters, but now the television center covers an area with a population of more than 15 million people.
The station equipment made it possible to simultaneously record from several different objects and broadcast. A special mission fell to the tower in Ostankino during the 1980 Olympics. It even housed the special equipment of the CNN news channel.
Meanwhile, the TV tower had other functions, no less important. Its building housed a meteorological observatory, which was in charge of the main meteorological center of the Soviet Union. The Ostankino station also provided television and radio communications between the main state structures of the country.
Very soon the television center became one of the most popular tourist attractions in the capital. In 1982, a building was erected near the tower, which provided excursion activities. A modern conference room for 800 people was also equipped here. The Seventh Heaven restaurant has also improved. It is worth noting that it is located at a height of 334 meters (which is approximately the 112th floor of a residential building) and occupies as many as three floors. Its windows offer an amazing view of Moscow. The peculiarity of the establishment is that it makes slow movements around its axis at a speed of one to three revolutions in 40-50 minutes. True, at present, the "Seventh Heaven" is closed for reconstruction, the timing of its completion is still unknown.
Unique panoramic platform
Meanwhile, most tourists are attracted by the observation deck of the Ostankino TV tower. In particular, there are four of them in the television center: an open one at an altitude of 337 meters and a closed one - 340 meters, as well as two lower ones at 147 and 269 meters. They work only during the warm season - from May to October. The tour group is usually limited to 70 visitors. The TV tower has 7 levels. The panoramic platform is located at the very last one. To better see all the interesting objects in the vicinity of the TV center, tourists can use telescopes and binoculars. In good weather, you can see not only the capital, but also the near Moscow region. It should be noted that the floor on the observation deck is absolutely transparent (made of durable glass), which definitely stimulates the flow of an impressive dose of adrenaline into the blood of visitors. An excursion to the Ostankino TV Tower is a truly impressive and spectacular event. It is noteworthy that over 30 years of operation of the tower, more than 10 guests have visited it.
Since July 2013, excursions to the Ostankino television center have been temporarily suspended due to reconstruction work. But at the moment, two observation decks (337 and 340 meters) are again open to tourists! For your information: only tourists from 7 to 70 years old are allowed on the tour. Pregnant women at a later date are also undesirable to visit the tower. The tower's management also prohibits visually impaired people from climbing on observation decks or if a person moves on a wheelchair or crutches.
The observation deck of the Ostankino TV tower undoubtedly deserves increased attention, but I would like to separately mention the structure of the tower. It is, in fact, a huge elongated cone, the walls of which are made of monolithic concrete reinforced with metal. The roof of the telecentre is supported by 149 ropes that are attached to the tower wall. In the center of this cone, there are shafts for cables, stairs, elevators and pipelines. By the way, the building has seven elevators, of which four are high-speed. Apart from the foundation, the weight of the TV tower structures is approximately 32 thousand tons. The mass of the structure together with the foundation is 55 thousand tons. The useful area of the premises in the tower is 15 square meters. m. At the maximum design wind speed, the Ostankino TV tower (Moscow), or rather its top (spire), theoretically can deviate by 000 meters.
Technical premises are isolated from visitors, they have a hotel entrance. The hall where all the main transmitters are located is located on the fifth floor. The technical rooms are located on the floor above. Telecentre personnel are protected from powerful electromagnetic radiation by means of screens made of special materials.
The television center has four high-speed elevators that can reach speeds of up to 7 m per second. The last one was launched in 2006. In particular, the observation deck, which is located at an altitude of 337 meters, can be reached in 58 seconds.
Fire at the Ostankino TV tower
in 2000, the TV tower suffered a massive fire that took the lives of three people. After the disaster, Moscow and the Moscow region were left without television broadcasting for several days. Initially, the fire broke out at an altitude of 460 meters. As a result of the disaster, three floors were completely burned. Due to the high temperature of the flame, several dozen cables, which provided the prestressing of concrete structures, burst, but, contrary to fears, the structure still resisted. This became another indisputable proof that the architect of the Ostankino TV tower and all other specialists who worked on the building project were true geniuses. Later, all these cables were successfully restored.
According to firefighters, it was very difficult to extinguish the fire. In the process of extinguishing the fire, the commander of the fire department, Vladimir Arsyukov, died. He decided to climb to the source of the fire himself and gave the command to the elevator operator Svetlana Loseva to go to an altitude of 460 meters with him. In the end, they both died. Another victim was the locksmith Alexander Shipilin.
According to experts, the overload of the networks became the cause of the fire. However, the equipment was set up in the shortest possible time, broadcasting was also resumed in the same volume. After the fire, large-scale construction and repair work had to be carried out to improve the territory and premises where excursions were held. By February 2008, everything was restored and improved. After the catastrophe, the excursion to the Ostankino TV tower was now conducted in compliance with special requirements: the number of participants in it should not exceed 40 people.
- Until 2000, the television center hosted a race for races to a height of 337 meters.
- Since 2003, base jumping competitions have been organized here. In the same year, a world record was set: 26 people jumped from the Ostankino TV tower at the same time.
- In 2004, at the base jumping festival, a misfortune happened: the Austrian competitor Christina Grubelnik somehow caught on the protruding parts of the TV tower and lost consciousness, and then hit a concrete wall hard. As a result, at a height of 85 meters, she caught her feet on the balcony. The workers of the television center, fortunately, managed to film the extreme. The girl received several fractures, but survived.
- In 2004, a new record was recorded: 30 people jumped from the TV center at the same time.
In the building of the excursion building of the Ostankino television center, there is the Royal Concert Hall. As part of the excursion program, this room is used as a cinema for showing films about the TV tower and Russian television. Korolevsky also hosts many concerts, conferences, performances and other events.
Incredible monument of the era
The Ostankino TV tower and all its equipment is constantly being improved. Due to the installation of several additional antennas, its height is now more than 560 meters (note that, according to the initial idea, its height was 520 meters). The television center is used in our time for its main purpose - for receiving and transmitting various radio signals and as a place for placing television studios for a large number of programs.
In addition, the Ostankino TV Tower (the photo of this building is admirable) is the most important tourist attraction in the capital. A tour of the TV center is something truly unforgettable. An overview of Moscow and its environs from the observation deck will be remembered for a lifetime.
The television center in Ostankino is rightfully considered a symbol of Russian television and one of the most delightful buildings on the planet.