White milled rice belongs to the group of herbaceous cereals. A Russian proverb says: "bread is the head of everything." But with regard to the population of Asian countries, this popular wisdom can be interpreted as "rice is the head of everything."
Scientists believe that this culture began to be cultivated in the territories of subtropical and tropical countries more than 10 centuries ago.
Rice: general information
Milled rice, the photo of which is presented below, together with wheat and other cereal plants, is one of the most ancient crops that mankind began to grow even at the beginning of civilization. This is a rather whimsical culture, for the cultivation of which you need to comply with certain temperature and climatic indicators. The cultivation area of rice paddies is limited to zones of subtropical and tropical climates. The main countries where this crop is grown are in Asia and the African continent.
Varieties of rice by type of processing
The method of processing grains directly affects the taste and consumer properties of this cereal. If one type of rice is suitable for making sushi or pilaf, then the other is suitable only for milk porridge.
According to the method of processing in the food industry, the following types of product are divided:
- Steamed is obtained after processing the beans with steam.
- White milled rice has a flat and smooth surface and is characterized by a rich white or transparent color.
- Long-grain is characterized by the fact that during cooking rice grains (up to 9 mm) of this variety do not stick together.
- Brown rice is mildly processed to retain the healthy hulls of a bright brown hue.
- Polished round grain is a crop whose grain length is no more than 4 mm.
- Medium grain rice is characterized by a grain length of 4-7 mm, as well as a germination area limited to Australia, Spain, New Zealand.
Round grain polished
Polished round grain rice is mined after heat treatment of the cereal. Countries where this crop is grown: Russia, China, Italy, Ukraine. It should be noted that this rice is characterized not only by its unique properties, but also by its consumer and culinary qualities.
Round ground grain has the ability to absorb large amounts of water. In addition, the chemical composition of this cereal contains a lot of starch, so polished rice is characterized by an opaque color. Most often, you can find white rice of this variety on sale.
Which to choose?
Often consumers cannot decide on the purchase of a product, since not everyone knows what kind of dishes polished rice is used for. Which variety is better and how does it differ when cooking? Let's try to figure it out.
To avoid any difficulties when choosing a product, remember the simple rules and recommendations:
- Long grain rice is great for pilaf, hot dishes and side dishes. The grains do not stick during cooking. This is an elite type of rice, which is appreciated for its rich aroma and exquisite taste.
- But in risottos and soups, it is advisable to use medium-grain cereals. After boiling, the polished rice becomes soft, but sticks together a little. This variety is appreciated for its ability to enrich the rest of the ingredients in dishes with aromas.
- Round rice is great for casseroles, puddings, and desserts. This polished cereal boils well. It turns out a creamy mixture, since the grains stick well together.
Rice for sushi
Round rice is best for this dish. Attempts to use long-grain varieties (for example, jasmine or basmati) will not be crowned with success, since these grains do not boil during cooking. You can choose sushi mesh rice, which is specially grown for this purpose.
A characteristic feature of this variety are small and round grains, which are much smaller than the usual oblong grains. This rice has a high stickiness, which is required for making sushi, since it is quite convenient to make "balls" from it. In Japanese cuisine, sushi is made from nishiki - special rice that, after cooking, looks like a mushy mixture. Sometimes okomesan and fushigon rice are used.
How to cook polished sushi rice?
The most important thing is to thoroughly wash the cereal before cooking, actively grinding and mixing it by hand. Professional craftsmen advise changing the water at least 10 times so that it is crystal clear. To make the rice come out airy and moist, it is also important to observe the correct ratio of cereals and water. For 250 ml of liquid, take 1 glass of cereal. The dishes where long-grain, polished or round rice is cooked must be covered with a lid, and it is forbidden to open it during cooking. Do not open the pan even after removing it from the stove, since it is necessary to let the cereal simmer for about half an hour.
- 250 ml of water;
- 180 g of cereal;
- salt - half a teaspoon;
- one sheet of noria;
- 1 tsp Sahara;
- 1 tbsp vinegar;
- enameled container with a lid.
Wash the rice thoroughly in cool water to remove any starch dust that covers the grains. Then let it sit for one hour, leaving it without water on a fine mesh sieve. This will allow the rice to absorb the remaining water and swell. Then fill the pot with water, add the beans, set on fire and let it boil.
Cook the beans over low heat for about 9-12 minutes. Then wrap the pan with warm material and let it brew for about 15 minutes. Heat the vinegar a little, stir the sugar and salt in it, pour into the cooked rice. Mix everything well and let the whole mixture dry. Thus, the rice will absorb the vinegar, due to which it will be filled with a specific aroma, and will be able to easily maintain and take the required shape.
How to cook brown rice?
- 250 ml of water;
- 180 g brown unpolished beans.
Wash the beans thoroughly and transfer to a sieve. In a small, thick-walled saucepan with a well-closing lid, heat the water to a boil, and pour the rice here. Then remove the resulting foam, set the heat to low, close the lid and cook for 45 minutes. Do not stir the cereals during cooking, and the cooked cereals must not be rinsed. Before use, you can slightly fluff the porridge with a fork. In brown rice, in contrast to white peeled, there is a large amount of potassium, calcium, vitamin B, iron, fiber and other useful substances. It takes about 45 minutes to cook, since the grains of this variety have a very hard structure.
How to cook crumbly rice?
Choosing the “right” grains is important to make crumbly rice. It is best to use jasmine, basmati, or other fine, long grain varieties. Before cooking, you need to thoroughly wash the cereals in cool water.
In order for the product to turn out to be very crumbly, it is necessary after cooking to put a little oil in it and stir thoroughly so that it is completely and evenly saturated. If the cereal is prepared for fish or meat dishes, with a vegetable sauce, then you should not season the grain with oil.
- 180 g of cereal;
- half a teaspoon of salt;
- 250 ml water.
Wash the rice well with plenty of cool water. Pour the liquid until it is completely clean, then transfer the beans to a sieve. When the rice dries a little, place it in an enamel container. Pour in water, salt, wait for a boil and place on low heat. Place the lid on the container and cook for 25 minutes. Then you do not need to remove the lid and stir the rice. Just let it stand on the stove, after wrapping the container with a towel. Thus, the rest of the water will be absorbed, and the rice will come to readiness, it will become crumbly and fragrant.
Before serving, loosen it a little with a fork, if there is sticky cereal, gently knead it. If everything is done correctly, the result will be crumbly and beautiful rice, which can be served as a side dish with absolutely any dish.
There are so many varieties and varieties of this cereal that it is simply impossible to reveal all the secrets at once. To properly cook polished rice, it is important to follow the recommendations described above, then you can surprise your loved ones and guests with a superbly cooked product.