A variety of ice cream varieties fill the stalls in summer. Even the most picky sweet tooth will find among them a suitable treat for themselves. Meanwhile, the traditions of this business were formed in our country not ten years ago. Industrial production originated in the 30s of the last century. Soviet ice cream was famous all over the world. Now things are a little different. What are the types of ice cream, what is the history of the delicacy, and what is the peculiarity of modern products - this will be discussed in the article.
Researchers note that the tradition of serving frozen delicacies originated about 5 thousand years ago. Of course, for such a distant time from us, such a treat was something surprising, because then no one even dreamed of refrigerators. Ice and snow were used to make desserts reminiscent of modern ice cream. Moreover, they often had to be brought from remote mountainous regions.
In China, ice cream was known as early as 2 thousand years BC. It was made from a mixture of ice, snow and pieces of fruit. The recipe and way of storing the delicacy was kept secret until the XNUMXth century BC, when it was revealed on the pages of the collection of ancient songs "Shi-king".
In ancient Rome, during the time of Nero, snow was brought from alpine glaciers to make cold fruit juices. For its storage, special structures were built. The recipe for soft drinks was described in the book by Mark Gabius Apicius, a cook who lived in the Holy Roman Empire during the time of Tiberius.
Ice cream penetrates into medieval Europe through the efforts of Marco Polo. The famous traveler tasted the cold delicacy in China and hastened to tell his compatriots about it. So ice cream begins to conquer Italy, France and Germany.
The history of ice cream in our country
There have never been any problems with snow and ice on the territory of our state. Culinary historians note that in Kievan Rus milk, frozen and finely planed, was often put on the table. On Shrovetide, in some regions, a treat made of almost ice-cold cottage cheese, raisins, sour cream and sugar was served.
Later, at the time of Peter the Great and Catherine the Second, ice cream was included in the menu of the festive table. Cold treats were then made in small quantities. With the improvement of technology, the volume of ice cream produced also increased. The first machine for its preparation in Russia appeared in the XNUMXth century.
Ice cream in the USSR
The history of the famous Soviet ice cream began in the thirties of the last century. Then the country's food commissar was Alexei Anastasovich Mikoyan. He argued that the cold delicacy should be available to all residents of the country. The United States was ahead of the rest of the world in producing ice cream a year at that time. Mikoyan went there for the necessary equipment and knowledge. And so it happened that all types of ice cream in the USSR arose on the basis of American technology.
Production started in 1937. All ice cream underwent strict quality control and had an unusually short shelf life by modern standards - one week. The delicacy consisted of only natural ingredients.
Types of ice cream in the USSR: photo
In terms of production, the country quickly became the second largest in the world after the United States. In the USSR, ice cream was sold by weight and packaged. At the kiosks, the delicacy was snapped up instantly. There you could buy "Creamy" in a glass, they offered jam or chocolate chips as a filling. The famous Soviet ice cream, which is often sighed about today, was served in a cafe in the form of balls on a metal ice cream maker. Each had a favorite kind of delicacy: chocolate, cream, crème brulee, fruit, popsicle.
There were also unique types of ice cream in the Soviet Union. The name of one of them is well known to modern sweet tooths. "Lakomka" was very popular. For its production, a special nozzle was invented, which made it possible to apply chocolate icing in a stream, and not by dipping. Also, nowhere, except in the USSR, wafer cups decorated with a cream rose (ice cream cake) were produced. There was also a cold treat with tomato filling in the country. To some it seemed very tasty, while others still spit at the mention of this culinary masterpiece. The Kashtan Eskimo was in great demand. It was hard to find - sold out instantly - and impossible to forget. In addition to the taste, "Kashtan" was remembered by the secular sweet tooth for its chocolate icing, which did not crumble or crumble with every bite.
The secret of taste
All types of ice cream, the photo and the name of which are given above, were popular not only in the country, but also abroad. The secret of the breathtaking taste was simple - only natural ingredients, the strictest quality control and a fairly high fat content. The last point distinguished Soviet ice cream from imported counterparts especially noticeably.
Modern types of ice cream: a name in Russia
Today in our country people love ice cream no less than in the days of the Soviet Union. However, there have been many changes in its production. Finding a cold treat with a short shelf life, that is, with only natural ingredients in the composition, is not an easy task these days. In pursuit of cheaper production, ice cream is made using vegetable fats and various preservatives. You can still find classic types of ice cream today, however, as a rule, they are more expensive than their “palm” competitors.
Cold treats based on animal fats are divided into several types:
dairy with a small amount of fat - about 2,8-3,5%;
butter contains more milk fat - up to 10%;
sundae is the fattest type of ice cream (up to 15%, the fattest varieties - up to 20%).
The main types of cold delicacies include fruit and berry, prepared from fruits and berries, as well as products of their processing. Flavored ice cream contains sugar as the main ingredient, as well as stabilizers, food acids and flavor essences.
When additional ingredients are added to the main composition, new types of ice cream appear: chocolate, crème brulee, coffee and nut ice cream. Fruit and berry varies depending on the main product in the composition for raspberry, strawberry, cherry and so on. The assortment is greatly increased by a variety of glazes, sprinkles and decorations.
There are also so-called amateur types of ice cream. They are produced in much smaller quantities than the main ones. In addition, there are varieties of cold treats for special purposes. These include ice cream with a sweetener, suitable for diabetics, as well as a delicacy enriched with oxygen ("Vigor"), and with the addition of table wine.
In our market, the greatest demand is for small-sized and bulk ice cream. The latter is especially held in high esteem on hot summer days. Bulk ice cream is quickly sold out - this is the key to its freshness, and crispy glasses determine the choice in its favor.
Bulk ice cream, cakes and rolls are less popular. Experts note that people in Russia are more accustomed to eating a cold delicacy on the street, on the way somewhere. We are much less likely to choose ice cream cake as a dessert to end a festive meal than the same Americans do. Therefore, it is precisely small-packaged types of ice cream that are popular with us. The name in the cones, briquettes and cups of the produced delicacy can be completely different. However, the “heart” of any ice cream is creamy, ice cream, fruit and berry or aromatic. And there are a lot of options for small packaging of cold delicacies:
briquettes, with or without waffles, glaze;
in waffle cones, tubes or cups;
cylinders in film or glaze;
on the shelf;
ice cream cake;
in plastic and paper cups;
Types by consistency
Cold treats also differ in the degree of freezing. It can be hardened and soft. The first species in production, after cooking, goes through the freezing stage to -18º or lower. Such ice cream has a longer shelf life and is highly firm.
This soft delicacy is prepared at catering establishments. Its shelf life is much shorter. Most often, this ice cream is eaten immediately after production. It is the soft kind of cold delicacy that is sold by weight in the summer.
The types of ice cream, photos of which are given in the article, are constantly being supplemented with new products. Each factory strives to create a unique taste, experimenting with ingredients, and custom designs. The usual varieties often fall into mass production, and exotic ones can be found in cafes and restaurants, whose chefs are working on the development of new recipes and options for decorating everyone's favorite delicacy. Ice cream based on tea, with the addition of champagne and cognac, fried, unsweetened, decorated with gold plates - the assortment is limited only by the imagination of the chef.