Dobrynya Nikitich was one of the popular trinity of Russian heroes. This character of the Russian folk epic was portrayed as a hero who serves under Prince Vladimir. Dobrynya's wife was the beautiful Nastasya, who was the daughter of Mikula Selyaninovich.
Dobrynya Nikitich prototype
An interesting moment can be traced in the epics. The fact is that it is Dobrynya that the prince usually gives various kinds of assignments: either to help out his niece, or to collect tribute and bring her to the court, he himself is summoned to carry out assignments that other heroes refused. Thus, the closeness to the princely family of Dobrynya, who is sometimes called the prince himself, the nephew of Vladimir the Red Sun himself, becomes obvious. The prototype of the hero in historical terms can be safely called the voivode Dobrynya, who was the uncle and voivode of Prince Vladimir, brother of Malusha's mother. Dobrynya performs personal assignments, using not only strength, courage, but also diplomatic abilities, which speaks of his education and intelligence. What Dobrynya Nikitich was, we learn from the epics, they often talk about his versatility, he is dexterous, swims well, shoots, and also owns musical instruments. He often plays the harp, sings, plays tavley.
The description of Dobrynya Nikitich in the epics is definite and clear. He has a courageous character and is endowed with unprecedented strength for ordinary people (only Ilya Muromets is stronger). A distinctive feature of Dobrynya from the rest of the heroes is his "vezhestvo", that is, diplomacy and tact.
Having analyzed what feats Dobrynya Nikitich performed in epics, some conclusions were drawn. Let's try to consider this character in more detail.
Death of Dobrynya Nikitich
In the stories, the hero Dobrynya Nikitich is closely associated with Ryazan. On the Oka River in the Shilovsky region there is an island that is connected with the hero, and the Dobrynin mound near the r.p. Shilovo. According to legends, on his island Dobrynya Nikitich carried a patrol, robbed merchants sailing by, and was thrown with axes with the hero Volodya, who was on duty on the island of Pupki, with axes (it is more about Ilya Muromets). After a sad battle with the Tatars, Dobrynya was buried on his mound. These events are mentioned in the chronicle story about the Battle of Kalka. Among the other dead there is the name of Dobrynya Ryazanich Zlatpoyas. Fighting comrades-in-arms brought the body of the hero home and buried in the town of Dubki, near the river Para. The Shilov peasants, in turn, excavated a mound in the 20s of the last century. As the peasants said, a belt with overlays, chain mail and a helmet were found in the mound. Local residents kept things. According to legend, knowing what deeds Dobrynya Nikitich performed, the mother of the deceased with a conspiracy lowered his sword into the river near the Shilovskaya church. It's time to remember all the merits of this hero.
What feats did Dobrynya Nikitich accomplish?
Roughly counting the number of epics, we come to an approximate figure of 53, of these heroic stories, Dobrynya became the main character in some of them. These are the deeds performed by Dobrynya Nikitich.
Dobrynya's duel with Ilya Muromets
The story of how the Russian hero Dobrynya Nikitich fought with the strongest hero and found a friend in him. So, Dobrynya grew up, and the fame of his strength reached Ukraine, to Ilya Muromets himself. Ilya decided to check whether the fellow was really as strong as they say about him, and went to distant Ryazan. Dobrynya did not grow up in wealth, he lived in a simple hut. Upon arrival, Ilya did not find Dobrynya at home, and his mother tried to dissuade the hero from the fight, begged not to harm her son. Ilya had already decided to go back, but he heard Dobrynya's praise on the street and offered to fight. In the first duel there was a draw, in the second duel the sabers became unusable, but the forces were equal. The third fight decided everything. The heroes went knee-deep into the ground, Ilya's leg trembled, then his hand, and then Dobrynya was on his chest. Thus, Dobrynya Nikitich met Ilya Muromets, did not harm him and became a friend. Ilya offered a new friend to serve with Prince Vladimir.
The story of Dobrynya Nikitich and the Snake
In most versions of this epic Dobrynya not only fights with the Serpent, but also frees the niece of Prince Vladimir Zabava Putyatichna from captivity.
The story begins with the words of Dobrynya's mother, who warns her son about the dangers of Sorochinskaya Mountain, about the ferocity of the Puchai River, the first stream cuts like fire, the second like a spark, and the third fire with smoke. The point is that Russian people are held captive there. Dobrynya disobeyed his mother and nevertheless went to save the Russian people. On the mountain, he killed the snakes, swam across the river, but a snake with twelve heads appeared from behind the mountain. And the hero realized that either death or captivity was in store. The weapon of Dobrynya Nikitich, as luck would have it, was not with him. What to do in such a situation? Dobrynya Nikitich's horse is far from him, there is no one to come to his aid. The good fellow had already thought about his death. I saw a three-pound Greek cap nearby, swung it at a snake, knocked it down, wanted to chop its heads off, but the monster prayed, promised not to take more Christians prisoner, and also promised to become a sister for the hero. Dobrynya took pity on the snake and let it go. When he returned to the princely court, he learned the sad news that the snake had kidnapped Vladimir's niece-Zabava Putyatishna. Vladimir ordered Dobrynya to return his nephew to the court, and if Dobrynya could not cope with the task, he would lose his head. Upset Dobrynya went home to his mother. She reassured him, they say, the morning is wiser than the evening. He took his father's horse Dobrynya and went to Mount Sorachinskaya, his mother gave him the Shamakhin's whip for his journey and said, if the horse would not trample on the snake cubs, so that Dobrynya would say the cherished words: “Burushko you, horse, gallop, And shake off the snakes from their feet!” ... So Dobrynya did, he killed all the snakes, the Russian people saved from captivity. The serpentine monster appeared again, for the fact that the oath was not kept, the battle for life and death began. For three days and three more hours the battle went on, blood poured for days, the earth barely absorbed this blood. After the victory, all the captives were freed from the caves, including Zabava Putyatichna. The young woman put Dobrynya on a horse and took her to the yard. The girl wanted to thank the young man for the salvation and offered him her love, but he refused, because she is of a noble family, and he is a simple guy. And so the feat of Dobrynya ended.
Dobrynya and Marinka
Dobrynya served with the prince for nine years, in the tenth year he decided to take a walk around the city, shoot a bow. Here he saw the pigeons, which were showing mercy on the window by the beautiful house, shot, but missed. The window shattered. In that mansion lived Marinka with the Serpent Gorynych. She bewitched Dobrynya and he himself came to her house. Marinka wrapped Dobrynya in the beast. For six months, no one heard of him. Once at the prince's evening, Marinka began to boast that she was turning good fellows into animals. Dobrynyushka's mother burst into tears, turned to the gossip Annushka, who herself heard the words of boast. Annushka pounced on Marinka, scolded her, injured her, and then turned Marinka like a dear and flew away. She flew to Dobryna, sat on her shoulder and asked for her release to marry her. Dobrynya agreed with the condition that he would give her a lesson as a wife. She turned him back into a good fellow and turned into a girl herself. They got married in an open field, returned to her house. There is no icon in her house, no divine candle, so let Dobrynya teach her prayers. Then the weapon of Dobrynya Nikitich was used. He cut off Marina's hand, for the fact that she hugged the Gorynycha Serpent, then cut off her legs, for the fact that she approached him on them, then her nose and lips, because she spoke to him and kissed them. And so the end of the sorceress came.
Dobrynya and Nastasya
Dobrynya served at the outpost, the girl walked past the outpost, mocked the heroes, Dobrynya could not stand the ridicule and challenged them to battle. They fought for three days, without bloodshed, the girl overcame the hero, put him in a leather bag, but the horse of two strong people could not stand it. Then the girl began to ask the prisoner. She promised him that if he was elderly, he would become his daughter, and if he was equal, then his wife. She freed Dobrynya, he gave his word to marry her in 3 years. And so it happened. After the wedding, the state business forced him to leave the house.
Dobrynya and Alyosha
Dobrynya was not at home for 12 years. Alyosha Popovich began to visit Nastya, told her that he had seen Dobrynya dead, invited the girl to marry him. The wedding was played noisy. The buffoon came to the court, he was allowed to the celebration. He played the harp so beautifully that the people cried with pleasure. Then Nastasya offered a glass of wine to the buffoon, he drank it and left a personalized ring in the glass. Nastasya burst into tears and said that her husband was not sitting next to her, but was playing the harp. So Alyosha Popovich was left without Nastenka, and Dobrynya with a beautiful wife until old age. These are the feats of Dobrynya Nikitich, coming from Russian epics. Perhaps now these feats seem ridiculous, but then people believed in evil spirits, in witches and monsters, and therefore only a real hero, endowed with courage, courage, ingenuity and the magical power of Mother Nature, could defeat them.
That is why folklore is interesting, that all the stories were composed by ordinary people, all emotions came from the heart, thanks to which the heroes turned out to be colorful, unusual and at the same time very wise. Despite the fact that the stories are old, invented by ordinary people, they have been preserved for a long time in history and have survived to this day. Even in modern society, epics about heroes are still popular, they got a second wind, cartoons and fairy tales were shot on their basis.