What root is in the word SHEPHERD?
The masculine noun Shepherd belongs to the second declension and therefore has a zero ending: Shepherd-Shepherd-Shepherd-Shepherd-Shepherd. To find the root, we select the root words: Shepherd-Shepherd-Shepherd-Shepherd-Grazing-Pasture. We notice that the root of this noun is the morpheme PAS-.
The morphemic analysis of the word Shepherd will be: PAS-T-UH_ (root-suffix-suffix-zero ending), the basis of the word SHEPHERD.
"The shepherd grazed the flock yesterday, let it be pasta today. Graze, shepherd!"
Obviously, the root (based on the same root verbs) in the word "shepherd" is only three letters "pass", and not "past", as it might seem at first glance.
The word "shepherd" has a broader meaning than we think. And look why: if we consider the emergence of new words in antiquity, we will have to agree that the shepherd and the shepherd are the same root words, one grazes cattle, the other - human souls. And against this background perhaps the word "save" originated from the word "to graze." The word "flock" is also one root. So in any case, the root "pass" is here, and "tuh" is a suffix.
In the word shepherd, the root is shepherd. Single-root words - graze, graze, graze, pasture. At the root, there is an alternation of tnol sound. It seems unreasonable to isolate m into a separate morpheme (suffix), since it is not clear in the formation of which word it participates (certainly not the word "graze", since -ti is a form-forming morpheme, it has nothing to do with the formation of new words).
Also in this word the suffix -tuh- stands out. In modern language it is unique, but the etymological analysis of some words makes it possible to establish that once this suffix was: rooster (from the word "sing"), midwife (from "povit", "whit", compare: midwife). So it is not worth including -tuh- in the root of the word "shepherd".
In the token SHEPHERD root PASS-. I will explain why.
To correctly disassemble the token SHEPHERD and, in particular, find the root in it, not enough conventional word composition analysis with the help of word forms and related words: look into the history of e origin, why turn to etymological dictionaries, which we will do in the process of completing the analysis of the morpheme.
Let's start with the obvious: highlighting the basis of the word and ending, for the token shepherd leans. To this end, we present several word forms of this token, that is, we write e in several cases in order to compare the variable parts of inflection (endings) and highlight the part of the unchanged basis:
- a shepherd, a shepherd, a shepherd, about a shepherd;
- shepherds, shepherds, shepherds, about shepherds.
Singular endings -A, -U, -OM, -E and plural numbers -I, -OV, -AMI, -AH show: in initial form shepherd zero flexion. In addition, we conclude that the basis of the token parsed and e word forms is part SHEPHERD-.
The hardest part is understanding the basics, for related words (graze, pasture, grazing, shepherdess grazing etc.) make you think about the following issues:
- What is the root of the word: PAS- or PAST-?
- If the root is PAS-, then how many suffixes in the word are: one -TUKH or two -T, -UKH?
Find answers to these questions and help us etymological dictionariestelling about the origin of words. Let us turn to the one that is intended for schoolchildren: School etymological N. M. Shansky and his colleagues.
This dictionary told us that in some ancient times from the verb GRAZE was through a suffix -T- formed word FALLmost likely a noun (not to be confused with a homonym denoting a pharynx, and with a verb-homonym related to words fall, fall, fall!). This is the word jaws, asserts the dictionary, it has long sunk into oblivion, that is, it has long been lost in language, but before it had succeeded by adding it to the base of the suffix -UH- noun form shepherd.
Suffix -UH- ambiguous, it can mean:
- persons of a female gender by the action made by them or on the basis of (birthing, midwife, old woman);
- animals by their external sign (beluga whale, coot, ginger)
- objects, inanimate phenomena related to the female genus (hunger, window dressing, mess).
But in a word shepherd we are dealing with currently unproductive meaning of this suffixbecause it means male gender by occupation.
From the foregoing it follows: at the heart of SHEPHERD- stood out historically two suffixes: -T- and -UH-therefore, the root in the token parsed and e relatives PASS-.
Again, one can not help asking questions:
- But in modern language, these suffixes merged into one or not?
- Or maybe in our days the suffix -T- has joined the root?
It is also quite difficult to answer them without dictionaries, and it is even impossible for a simple student, but this time we will turn morphemic dictionary. We have Tikhonovsky Morphemic and Spellingunfortunately, from April 1 portal Yandex dictionaries ceased to exist, so it is difficult for us to get to it (the dictionary) online, but there is a portal udarenieru.ru, which to some extent repeats Tikhonov's dictionary (by the way, on the page of the etymological dictionary, a hyperlink a few paragraphs above, there is also an extract from the dictionary Tikhonov, he divides this word into morphemes in the same way as udarenieru.ru). Let's take a look here, well check not just a word shepherdbut a few related words. Dictionary shows: suffix -T- in these words IS, they Did not merge with a suffix -UH- and did not join the root!
As you can see, the suffix -T- in all the tokens given above, except, of course, the original graze, is related (it is associated with the suffixes -B-, -B-, -YPB-), for the only word in which it was unrelated (mentioned above jaws) language is lost, so another question arises:
- Are there other words in our language in which there would be the same related suffix -T-, such, in particular, words in which this suffix would be followed by the suffix -УХ-, as in the token shepherd?
There is! Here they are!
By the way, this is the same historical composition words COCK, but in nm, authors of morphemic dictionaries consider, suffixes merged with the root, and therefore in modern language base equals root.
Thus, historical analysis, as well as token matching shepherd with tokens, both related and those with the same suffixes as in it, allowed us to complete the analysis and select the root of the parsed token PASS- and suffixes -T-, -UH.