The time when the Moscow Kremlin was built should be known to every person who loves Russia. Because it is not only the heart of Russia, the soul of the great and largest country in the world, but also one of the most beautiful complexes in the world.
The oldest settlements
Excavations have shown that settlements on the territory of the Kremlin existed 5000 years ago, and in the XNUMXth century AD, Slavic tribes already lived here. In the center of Moscow itself, the remains of a settlement belonging to the Dyakovo culture were found.
Dyakovsky settlements, as a rule, were located on the headlands of rivers. In ancient times, for reasons of convenience and safety, the hills on the banks of the river were the first to settle in the area. It is desirable at the mouth, so that the water encloses the settlement from both sides. The waterway served as a communication route with neighbors and allowed for more intensive trade, and the hills were not so accessible to enemies and made it possible to view a large area.
The birth of Moscow
And when the Moscow Kremlin was built, Borovitsky Hill, surrounded on both sides by the Moscow River and the Neglinnaya River flowing into it, as well as the settlement located on its top, turned into an impregnable fortress. The first mention of the Kremlin dates back to 1147. Then there were not even walls erected in wood. They appeared only 9 years later - in 1156. The heart of Moscow was first mentioned in connection with the invitation by Yuri Dolgoruky to the newly erected mansions of his ally Svyatoslav Olgovich, the prince of Novgorod-Seversk. The arrival of the future relative (their granddaughter and son - the famous Igor and Yaroslavna - will get married) to the feast is considered the date of the foundation of Moscow. This is exactly the time when the Moscow Kremlin was built.
After the construction of the walls, the Kremlin becomes the administrative center for the surrounding and nearby villages. Here the inhabitants of these settlements found shelter during the invasion of enemies. Gradually, the importance of this fortress increased, and the territory expanded. And now, under the son of Alexander Nevsky, Prince Danil Alexandrovich (1261–1303), the ancestor of the Moscow princes, the city that grew up around the Kremlin became the capital of a small Moscow principality.
At the time when the Moscow Kremlin was built, Yuri Dolgoruky founded Pereyaslavl-Zalessky and Yuryev-Polsky. This prince, who ruled the Rostov-Suzdal principality all his life and died there, was engaged in active urban planning. In addition to the above cities, he founded Dubna, Kostroma, Dmitrov, the village of Senyatino, flooded during the construction of the Uglich reservoir, and, according to one of the legends, Gorodets. In addition, he built many fortresses and fortified areas. So, when the Moscow Kremlin was built (year 1147), other strategic points were laid. And nothing said that it was from this fortress that the capital of the largest state in the world would grow.
Future Capital Improvements
And Moscow was built and expanded. Prince Ivan Kalita (1283-1341) builds the first white-stone cathedrals. And under him, in 1340, the old wooden walls were replaced with powerful oak ones. And his grandson Dmitry Donskoy (1350-1389), the son of the Moscow prince Ivan II the Red, replaces the oak walls with white stone ones. This was the reason to call Moscow "white stone". It is such a beauty that is depicted in the painting by Vasily Vereshchagin, painted in 1879, under the title "View of the Moscow Kremlin from the Stone Bridge." The capital of Russia, a city with an amazing history, cannot but arouse increased interest. Any main city of the country is loved and respected by its inhabitants. But Moscow is much more for a Russian person. And it is quite natural to want to know the details of the emergence of the city, how it began, how and when the Moscow Kremlin was built, the year of its emergence and under which prince this miracle was built.
First literary mentions
One of the first descriptions of the birth of the great city is in the story "The Legend of the Assassination of Daniel of Suzdal and the Beginning of Moscow." The Ipatiev Chronicle is considered the first reliable source where the town of Moscow is mentioned - the place of a great feast in honor of the meeting of friends and allies of the Rostov-Suzdal and Novgorod-Seversky princes. There are several answers to the question of the year in which the Moscow Kremlin was built. You can specify a specific date in connection with which the Kremlin is first mentioned - on the day "Heel to the Praise of the Virgin", that is, on Saturday April 4, 1147. And you can talk for a long time about how the Kremlin was built over the centuries. Is it possible to imagine this complex without the Assumption Cathedral or the Grand Kremlin Palace?
The Kremlin was built and rebuilt
The answer to the question of what year the Moscow Kremlin was built will depend entirely on what is meant by this name - a modern whopper, the residence of the President of the Russian Federation, or a small wooden structure from which it all began. A page is not enough to simply list all the chambers, cathedrals, buildings, squares, gardens and monuments of this main socio-political and historical-artistic complex of Russia, covering an area of 27,5 hectares. The territory of the Kremlin resembles an irregular triangle.
One of the pearls of the Kremlin
The Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin deserves special words. It was built in 1479. The history of the beginning of its creation dates back to 1326. The Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan Kalita, together with St. Peter, laid the foundation of the first stone cathedral in Moscow this year. The capital city (and this is precisely the status Moscow had) was obliged to have the main temple of Holy Russia. It was Saint Peter who played a key role in the fact that Moscow became the first throne. Therefore, after his death, the first Metropolitan of Moscow was buried in the still unfinished main cathedral of Russia. His relics and the list of the icon "The Virgin of Petrovskaya", the original of which was made by the Apostle Peter himself, are among the main shrines of Russia. The cathedral was rebuilt. This happened during the reign of the unifier of the Russian lands under the rule of Moscow, Grand Duke Ivan III. Under him, a large construction was launched in the Kremlin - all buildings were rebuilt in stone. And in this case, answering the question of when the Moscow Kremlin was built, the year can be called completely different - 1485. Over the decade (1485-1495), unique battlements were erected, which are the hallmark of the great complex.
Priceless treasure of world architecture
As noted above, Dmitry Donskoy rebuilt the original wooden detinets in stone (as the Kremlin was also called in Russia). Actually, he built a new stone "kremnik", and the year of completion of construction, 1367, can also rightfully be considered the date when the Moscow Kremlin was built. Later, during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, who became the first Russian tsar (he took the title in the Kremlin's Assumption Cathedral), the complex itself was also intensively completed.
And the decoration of Cathedral Square is the Ivan the Great bell tower, without which it is difficult to imagine the Kremlin, since it was the tallest building in Moscow for many years, and was generally erected during the reign of Boris Godunov. However, the first Moscow Kremlin was built in 1147 by the decree of Yuri Dolgoruky. The fortified part of the city was also called "krom", which is more suitable for a wooden tower, surrounded by a wooden fence. The one and only, legendary and impregnable, the Kremlin is the personification of the power and uniqueness of Russia.