Nature is so laid down that a close bond between the child and the mother begins in the womb. Through the umbilical cord, the baby receives nutrients, oxygen. Decay products and carbon dioxide are removed through the arteries of the umbilical cord. Sometimes the baby is so active that he literally "gets entangled" in the umbilical cord. And then it forms loops that can twine around the neck or other parts of the body one or more times. It is important and interesting to know why the fetus is entwined with the umbilical cord, how to avoid it and what to do if the problem has already arisen.
Umbilical cord entanglement of the fetus: what is it?
Umbilical cord entanglement is a fairly common pathology that obstetricians-gynecologists diagnose in the last stages of pregnancy. Often the baby himself “solves” the problem and gets out of the umbilical cord loop, but in some cases the help of an obstetrician is needed. How and why the cord entanglement occurs, every pregnant woman should know the causes of this pathology. In some cases, the emergence of pathology is provoked by the future mother, so she is obliged to monitor her health and well-being.
Causes of pathology
According to statistics, 20% of pregnancies are accompanied by an umbilical cord entwining the baby. It is important for the expectant mother to know the reasons for the umbilical cord entanglement of the fetus and, if possible, avoid exposure to provoking factors. There are folk signs that say that you cannot sew, knit, weave or actively engage in gymnastics during pregnancy. Believe it or not is the business of every future mother, but we must remember that these are just fictions of our ancestors.
Doctors obstetricians-gynecologists name the factors that cause the development of the deviation. Umbilical cord entanglement can lead to:
- fetal hypoxia;
- stress and overwork;
- inappropriate nutrition of the mother;
- long umbilical cord.
When registering with an antenatal clinic and for nine months, doctors identify the risks of developing various pathologies and strictly monitor the state of health of the mother and fetus. If a woman is at risk, then she needs to regularly visit an obstetrician and follow all his prescriptions.
Among other pathologies during pregnancy, one of the most common is the entanglement of the umbilical cord. The causes, provoking factors are well studied and doctors successfully accept such births.
How does the entanglement of the fetus take place?
The most common reason for the cord entanglement is the baby's hyperactivity. The baby may not have enough oxygen, nutrients and substances, and he actively moves in the womb in “search for food”. If the expectant mother abuses coffee, black tea, alcohol, cigarettes, then the child needs more oxygen, which he tries to get additional. Frequent stress leads to an increase in the level of adrenaline in the blood of both the mother and the baby, which causes the baby to be active.
With polyhydramnios, the child has too much room for movement, so he can easily get tangled in the umbilical cord and even tighten its loops more tightly. A long umbilical cord can also get tangled much more easily and form dangerous loops around the baby's neck and body.
Umbilical cord entanglement around the neck
The most dangerous for the health of the fetus is the entanglement of the umbilical cord around the neck. In this case, during childbirth, the loop can be tightened and lead to dire consequences. Modern medicine has reached such a level that this pathology is successfully treated and the child is born absolutely healthy. It is important for expectant mothers to regularly undergo all examinations, carry out ultrasound diagnostics and be under the supervision of a doctor.
Single entanglement with the umbilical cord
The most "simple" is a single entanglement with the umbilical cord - one loop is formed on the child's neck, from which the baby often "gets out" on its own. During childbirth, it is easy to loosen and remove the entanglement once. This type of pathology occurs most often and rarely brings problems to the woman in labor and the child.
Multiple entanglement with the umbilical cord
An entanglement, in which two or more loops are formed on the baby's neck, is called multiple. Most often, doctors fix a double entanglement, but there can be three or even four loops of the umbilical cord. This type of pathology is more difficult to correct for doctors during natural childbirth, therefore, a cesarean section is performed.
Consequences of an umbilical cord entanglement
The entanglement of the umbilical cord around the neck leads to the fact that the fetus often experiences oxygen starvation, and it develops microtrauma of the cervical vertebrae. In the future, a child born with an entanglement is prone to frequent and severe headaches, fatigue, and hypertension. There are also problems with intrauterine development and the provision of nutrition for the fetus: the clamped umbilical cord conducts less nutrients and worsens the removal of waste carbon dioxide.
Such children are prescribed special treatment, which consists of massage, physiotherapy, and medication. It is important to seek help from a pediatrician, a neurologist in time and start treatment, then the chances of a full recovery increase.
Entanglement around other parts of the body is less common and is less dangerous to the fetus. More often the legs are entwined, less often the arms of the child. In this case, it is even easier for the baby to get out, therefore, it is rarely possible to fix the cord entanglement on ultrasound diagnostics. The reasons for the hug are the same as those listed above.
The most dangerous is the umbilical cord entanglement around the neck. The consequences of this pathology can remain with the child for life and lead to many serious illnesses: hypertension, migraine, dropsy of the brain, osteochondrosis, mental retardation.
Obstetric care with entanglement
In the overwhelming majority of cases, pregnancy with an entanglement of the umbilical cord ends successfully, and childbirth takes place naturally. Childbirth in such women proceeds without complications, the child and mom feel well and, like others, are discharged home in a few days. The only difference is that during delivery, the mother is under intensive medical supervision using Doppler or ultrasound equipment.
After the birth of the fetal head, the obstetrician manually releases the baby's neck from the umbilical cord loop and labor continues. Only with tight or repeated entanglement already in the process of childbirth or a cesarean section is selected in advance. In some cases, this is the only way to have a healthy baby and avoid future problems.
It is important for a pregnant woman to take care of the health of her unborn child. It will be useful for the expectant mother to know how the cord entanglement occurs, the causes and consequences of this pathology. It doesn't matter how the delivery went. It is important that the child is born healthy, and that the mother has the strength to take care of the newborn.